Kings & Founder

DOB: May 6, 1918

The founder of the UAE (1918- 2004)

He is credited as the founding father and the principal driving force behind the formation of the UAE, uniting seven emirates. He was also the ruler of Abu Dhabi from 1966 until his death After the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became the Ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966, he had a vision of creating a union to catalyze development just as the other developing nations. Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed in Dubai, who was Ruler since 1958, had a similar vision. A shared vision between the two leaders translated into a federal union between Dubai and Abu Dhabi after the historical meeting in Samha – located on the border area between the sister emirates – on 18th February 1968.

The Dubai-Abu Dhabi Federal Union opened new doors for the establishment of a wider union driven by the shared vision of both Sheikh Zayed and Sheikh Rashid. Ultimately, and after hard work of communications and negotiations, on 18th July 1971, six of the Trucial States (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah) decided to form a state under one banner. On 2nd December 1971, the establishment of the United Arab Emirates was announced. Ras Al Khaimah joined the union on 2nd December 1972 when the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan raised the UAE flag for the first time. UAE becomes 132nd member of the United Nations. 

As a new state, the United Arab Emirates joined the League of Arab Nations on 6th December 1971 and then became the 132nd country to join the United Nations on 9th December 1971. The UAE was a founding member of the Islamic Conference Organisation in the 1970s. Abu Dhabi, capital of the UAE, hosted a historical meeting in 1981 that saw the establishment of the Gulf Cooperation Council which includes UAE, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

DOB: July 15, 1949

On 4th January 2006, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum became the Ruler of Dubai following the death of Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum during a visit to Australia.

On 5th January the members of the UAE Supreme Council elected Sheikh Mohammed the UAE Vice-President. On 11th February 2006 UAE President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan nominated Sheikh Mohammed for the position of UAE Prime Minister; the Supreme Council approved this nomination. Sheikh Mohammed and the members of his Cabinet took their oaths in front of Sheikh Khalifa at Al Bateen Palace in Abu Dhabi.

On 4th January 1995, Dubai and the UAE awoke to groundbreaking news splashed in banner headlines in Arabic and English that the newspapers. The previous day the Dubai Ruler, Sheikh Maktoum,had signed two decrees that would have a dramatic effect on the future of the emirate. One appointed Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid as Crown Prince of Dubai. The second recognized Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid as Deputy Ruler of the emirate. Sheikh Mohammed later commented: “I do not know if I am a good leader, but I am a leader. And I have a vision. I look to the future, 20, 30 years. I learned that from my father, Sheikh Rashid. He was the true father of Dubai. I follow his example. He would rise early and go alone to watch what was happening on each of his projects. I do the same. I watch. I read faces. I take decisions and I move fast; full throttle.”

DOB : November 14, 1982

On Friday, 1st February 2008, the Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE, in his capacityas Ruler of Dubai, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, issued a decree appointing his son Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, as Crown Prince of Dubai.

On Friday, 1st February 2008, the Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE, in his capacity as Ruler of Dubai, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, issued a decree appointing his son Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, as Crown Prince of Dubai. The decree was effective from the date of issuance. Sheikh Mohammed also issued a decree, naming his brother Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum and his son Sheikh Maktoum bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum as Deputy Rulers of Dubai Sheikh Hamdan is Sheikh Mohammed’s second son, and he is well known as ‘Fazza’.

History Of Dubai


The ancient history of Dubai is not accurately recorded, although excavations uncovered the presence of human settlements that date back to approximately 4,000 years. Hundreds of artifacts, housed in the Dubai Museum, point to civilizations that inhabited the area between the second and third B.C. Archaeologists have successfully uncovered hundreds of burial sites of different shapes and sizes in Al Qusais. Significant sites in the UAE include the Hatta village site dating back to approximately the third century B.C. whereas Jumeirah is considered by historians to be a familiar landmark in Islamic history, especially in the First Islamic Age. Pottery, Islamic-style decorations, and coins have been found. Al Fahidi Fort was built in several phases. The oldest tower was built around 1799 and is believed to be the oldest building in Dubai that still exists today. The fort was used to guard the landward approaches to the town. In 1971 and after undergoing maintenance works that lasted for three years, Al Fahidi Fort was transformed into a museum that displays a rich collection of artifacts that create a realistic image of what was day-to-day life really like before the discovery of oil in this region.

The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095, in the “Book of Geography” by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gaspero Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai (Dibei) for its pearling industry. Dubai was referred to as Al Wasl by British historians. Few records pertaining to the cultural history of the UAE or its constituent emirates exist and because of the region’s oral traditions, folklore and myth were not written down. According to Fedel Handhal, a researcher in the history and culture of the UAE, the word Dubai may have come from the word Daba. There are several theories as to how Dubai was named. One theory is that the word Dubai is a combination of the Farsi words for two brothers, the latter referring to Deira and Bur Dubai. Others believe that ‘Dubai’ was so named by people who considered its souq a smaller version of a thriving market named ‘Daba’. Another possibility is that the name came from a word meaning money – people from Dubai were commonly believed to have money because it was a prosperous trading center.

In the 18th century, Dubai was a small fishing and trading village inhabited by members of the Bani Yas. The Al Maktoum family settled in Dubai in 1833. As the population grew, Dubai branched into three distinct areas: Deira was the largest and the main commercial center. On the western bank, Bur Dubai and Shindagha were separated by a wide stretch of sand called Ghubaiba, which would flood during high tide. Shindagha, situated on a narrow strip of land separating the sea from the creek, was the smallest area and the main residential district. The ruling sheiks traditionally lived here and the late Sheikh Saeed’s house is still standing. Shindagha was probably the site of the original Bani Yas village. Crossing the creek meant a long and arduous journey around the end of the creek or a ride in an abra, a small wooden boat that ferries passengers to this day. Abras were also used to transport people to ships. The arabs have become a huge tourist attraction. Deira’s souk, the town’s public market, was lined with narrow, covered passageways. With 350 shops of commodities from around the world, it was the largest market in the region. Many of the craftsmen in the souk had no shop but worked on a vacant piece of ground as close as possible to their clients. They were known by name, and the cry would go around the souk, Where is Hassan the mattress-maker?? until it reached him and he was able to make contact with the potential client. A mattress maker’s creation was vulnerable to visits from passers-by, who might stop to pray on it or simply to rest and chat.? Prior to the introduction of electricity in 1952, kerosene lamps or candles were
used for lighting, and charcoal, imported from the interior of Oman, was used for cooking and making coffee. Sweet water came from wells around Dubai. The majority of the inhabitants lived in barastis, huts constructed from palm fronds. Extended families dwelled in compounds amid the compounds of relatives. Houses were constructed of gypsum from the salt marshes at the end of the creek and coral stone. The town’s highest points were the wind towers of the coral stone houses, the watchtowers, and Al Fahidi Fort. Wind towers were used for ventilation — a house would cool as water on the floor beneath the tower evaporated. Built in 1799, the Fort is Dubai’s oldest surviving structure and it has served as the seat of government, the Ruler’s residence, and a jail. With a thriving port and market, Dubai’s residents enjoyed a higher standard of living than their neighbors in the region.

Emirati Dirham (AED)

Time zone in United Arab Emirates (GMT+4)

Dubai has 4 seasons – winter, spring, fall, and summer. Summer in Dubai begins around the last week of April and ends around the first week of October. This period is characterized by extremely hot weather, hot winds and high humidity.


Climate data for Dubai
Average sea temperature °C (°F)20.9
Average Ultraviolet index681011+11+11+11+11+11+8659.2

Dubai Law & Rules

Foreigners planning to work in the UAE must know that they cannot work on visit visas or tourist visas. They need a legitimate work/residency visa/permit to be able to live and work legally in the UAE. The employer needs to procure the work and residency permits. Working without first obtaining the proper visa status is illegal and can lead to penalties and legal liability. The penalties apply to both: the employer and the employee.It says that you can’t work on a visit visa in Dubai. If caught, can lead to a penalty of three months jail as well as a fine of up to Dh10,000.

This is due to the fact that working without the proper authorization is a significant violation of UAE labour regulations. Interim Statement By Government Official “Every foreigner who entered the country under a visit visa and wished to work in the country must obtain a permit from the competent authority.

Otherwise, he shall have to bear in accordance with imprisonment for a period not exceeding three months. The fine would not exceed Dh10,000 or one of these two penalties, and the court shall order the deportation of the violator from the state.”

Non-Muslims do not have to fast in Ramadan. However, they are prohibited from eating, drinking and smoking in public during the fasting hours. This includes chewing gum.

Ramadan etiquette for non-Muslims

  • engage in any aggressive behavior.
  • Dance or play music in public although you may listen to music quietly with
  • Wear inappropriate clothing in public.
  • Swear as blasphemy is considered extra offensive during Ramadan.
  • Refuse a gift, or an invitation to join someone at Iftar.

Is everything open in Dubai during Ramadan?

Visiting Dubai if you’re a tourist during Ramadan While eating, drinking, and smoking are strictly prohibited in public places, hotels will offer meals and drinks at many of their restaurants and bars.

Do and don’ts in Ramadan?

DO embrace the community spirit and wish a blessed Ramadan to Muslim friends and colleagues. Don’t eat, chew, drink or smoke in public during the hours of daylight, even if you’re not Muslim. DO accept food and drink when offered during Iftar, it is a sign of respect and friendliness. DO stay calm.

Anti-discrimination laws and policies

The UAE has several laws in place that aim to prohibit discrimination and hatred on the basis of caste, race, religion, or ethnic origin. Further, there are laws to protect the rights of people of determination (those with special needs) and laws for equal pay to women.

Anti-discrimination/Anti-hatred law

In July 2015, the late H. H Sheikh Khalifa, the then President of the UAE issued Federal Decree-Law No. 2 of 2015 on Combating Discrimination and Hatred, which aims to protect everyone in the UAE and thus bring the concept of social security to a new level. The law aims to fight discrimination against individuals or groups based on religion, caste, doctrine, race, colour, or ethnic origin.

UAE Labour Law

Article 4 of the UAE Labour Law, on equality and non-discrimination, prohibits forced labour and discrimination on the basis of gender, race, colour, sex, religion, national or social origin, or disability. Article 30 of the same law prohibits termination of women’s employment because of their pregnancy.

Laws on equal wages for women and men

In 2018, the UAE Cabinet approved a law on equal wages and salaries for women and men. Article 4 of the UAE Labour Law provides that the female worker shall be granted a wage equal to that the man is earning if she were performing the same work.

Federal Law No. 29 of 2006

Federal Law No. 29 of 2006 protects the rights of people of determination. Article 12 of the law provides: the country guarantees people with special needs equal opportunities in education within all educational, vocational training, adult education, and continuing education institutions in regular classes or special classes with the availability of curriculum in sign language or Braille and or any other methods as appropriate.

No discrimination against people of determination in public and private sectors

Resolution No. 43 of 2018 in support of the ‘people of determination’ aims to support the rights of ‘people of determination’ in the field of employment by enabling access to opportunities in the labour market. The resolution requires concerned government entities to protect the rights of ‘people of
determination’ and to ensure their right to work on an equal basis with others and not to be discriminated against.

The resolution stressed the need to provide working and health conditions for ‘people of determination,’ and not to terminate their services or refer them to retirement due to disability or its occurrence after appointment unless retirement age is reached or a competent medical committee decision states they are not fit to work. Further, it stipulates that the private sector should be encouraged to integrate ‘people of determination’ into their institutions and grant them exemptions and privileges.

People of Determination protection from abuse policy

The UAE’s People of Determination Protection from Abuse Policy condemns all forms of abuse and neglect of people of determination. Abuse and neglect involve depriving people of determination of their basic right to care, rehabilitation, medical care, recreation, or community integration. It also condemns using such people to get material profits and not spend on them.

Law on Domestic Workers

The Federal Law No. 10 of 2017 on Domestic Workers prohibits discrimination among domestic workers on the basis of race, colour, gender, religion, political opinion, and national origin or social origin.

Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 195

The UAE is a signatory to the Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation. The convention requires signatories to pursue a national policy designed to promote equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of employment and occupation, with a view to eliminating any discrimination in respect thereof.

Pedestrian Safety in Dubai: Guidelines to Remember LAWS & REGULATIONS 5 min read

  • Rules for pedestrians
  • Pedestrians fines
  • Rules for motorists
  • Motorist fines

The UAE government has an extensive list of rules and regulations to ensure maximum road safety for everyone. One set of such rules is regarding pedestrian safety in Dubai. A lot of such accidents can be avoided if both pedestrians and drivers practice caution. Therefore, the Dubai government has implemented laws and regulations for both parties.

Read this guide to learn about all the rules, signals, and signs outlined by the authorities to ensure road safety for pedestrians in Dubai.


Following are the rules pedestrians in Dubai should abide by to reduce the risks of road accidents:


To avoid any unwanted road accidents, pedestrians are required to cross the roads at the designated safe crossing areas such as underpasses, pedestrian bridges, zebra crossings, and others. Just like a car should only move after the appropriate signal light, a pedestrian should also move forward at crossings when the pedestrian signal turns green.

Just like a car should only move after the appropriate signal light, a pedestrian should also move forward at crossings when the pedestrian signal turns green Since motorists are required to slow down around such crossing points, the chances of a pedestrian accident are less around them.


Using sidewalks irrespective of the traffic flow is among the other rules for walking on the roads in Dubai. This practice is likely to alleviate the chances of unfortunate incidents significantly. In case there is no sidewalk, you should walk on the left side of the road.


When you are walking on or near a road, keep your eyes open and be vigilant of incoming traffic. This means not being on your phone at such times. Even if someone uses their headphones to attend a call, they can still be distracted, leading to an accident. If you are listening to music, make sure the volume is not too high to drown the sound of the traffic or a speeding car.


Since a driver’s view can sometimes be obstructed, parking areas can be highly dangerous zones for pedestrians. Therefore, when in and around the parking spaces, be aware of the cars exiting and entering the driveways and backing up in the lots.


Taking care of any accompanying child while walking on the road or nearby is the adult’s responsibility. As an adult, you are required to hold the children’s hands to keep them away from harm’s way.

As an adult, you are required to hold the hands of the children when crossing the road with them


As per the rules regarding road safety, pedestrians jaywalking in the UAE are subject to a fine of AED 400.


Motorists are required to follow these rules to ensure pedestrian safety on the roads of Dubai:


Motorists are required to give way to pedestrians crossing the road at a zebra crossing. Zebra crossings in Dubai without a traffic signal especially require the driver’s attention to stop at them and follow the rules. Moreover, smart devices running on solar energy are deployed at various crossing spots on both sides of the roads by the Dubai Police. These are smart sensors monitoring the pedestrians crossing the road and switching on a red indicator light to inform all the motorists that they must give way to them. Violations of this requirement are recorded and delivered automatically to the Dubai Police’s server leading to a fine against the motorist.


Slowing down at the traffic signals is important for pedestrian safety since zebra crossings are often located after a traffic signal. Therefore, motorists should slow down, and be ready to apply brakes when they enter a crosswalk to avoid any kind of accident due to recklessness near the traffic signal.


No matter how tempting it is to sneak a peek at your mobile phone screen, you should never do that while driving to become a courteous driver. If you start doing this, it is likely to become a habit resulting in a lack of attention and dire

Using a phone while driving on Dubai roads results in a fine of AED 800 and 4 black points Even when you stop at a signal, keep your attention on the road and away from your mobile phone.


Slowing down around a playground, school, and another child zone is mandatory for motorists. Moreover, drivers are instructed to lower their car speeds in neighborhoods that are rife with walkways and parks. Since kids are usually quite energetic and may neglect their safety while playing near traffic, it is the driver’s responsibility to be more careful.


If you jump a signal, a Dubai traffic fine of AED 1000 along with 4 black points will be added. Failure to give way to pedestrians on zebra crossing will result in a fine of AED 500 and 6 black points. Also, the Dubai government charges a fine of AED 800 and 4 black points to anyone driving while using their phone.

Knowing traffic laws is the first step toward avoiding fines on the road and driving responsibly. Always drive with caution and take care of the pedestrian safety rules. Make sure you follow all the other traffic laws as well. Abide by the speed limits and avoid driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol. Furthermore, everyone, especially parents and teachers, should teach the children about road safety tips and their importance.

What are the rules of Dubai for a visit visa?

The new visa will grant them 90 days in the country without a sponsor. These tourists will ben able to stay in UAE for up to 180 days per year.

New UAE tourist visa rules: a complete guide

Announced in April, this is something visitors to the UAE have been looking forward to. The new types of visa-on-entry are aimed at encouraging people to come to Dubai (as if the great restaurants, top-notch attractions, and warm weather wasn’t drawing enough).

UAE tourist visa on arrival

Tourists entering the UAE will now receive a 60-day visa on arrival. Who loves the sound of being able to stay in the sunny city of Dubai for two months? We do. Unsure how the new UAE tourist visa rules are different to before? Previously, many nationalities received a 30-day visa on arrival.

When the 30 days were up you would have a nine-day grace period before being required to pay to renew your visa, or face fines.

The new rules mean that all types of visit and tourist visas can be extended twice. Visitors and tourists can apply for the second renewal before the expiry of the first one. The price for the renewal will be Dhs600.

Visa overstayers who do not renew, as per the new rules, will have to pay Dhs100 fine for each day of their overstay, to be calculated from 10 days after the visa expiry.

Things required to come to Dubai

You will need a valid passport to enter Dubai. Make sure your passport is valid for at least six months beyond your intended stay.

Depending on your nationality, you may need a visa to enter Dubai. You can check the visa requirements on the official website of the General Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs in Dubai.

You will need to book a flight ticket to Dubai.

You will need to book accommodation in Dubai, such as a hotel or serviced apartment.

It is recommended that you have travel insurance to cover any unexpected medical expenses or travel-related issues.

Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there may be additional requirements for entering Dubai, such as a negative PCR test result, vaccination proof, or quarantine requirements. Make sure to check the latest travel guidelines and requirements on the official website of the Dubai Government or your airline before traveling.

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